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ISSN : 1226-6809(Print)
ISSN : 2466-0698(Online)
Correction Review Vol.82 No. pp.141-163

Subculture Typology of Correctional Officer in South Korea

Lee Seungjoo**,Lee Yunho***
* Researcher, Institute of Transdisciplinary Studies for the Future, Dongguk University/Lead Author.
** Professor, Dongguk University/Corresponding Author.


Correctional organizations conduct various forms of work, have different inclinations, and consist of diverse members. For example, they experience paradigm shifts in calibration goals, suffer conflicting organizational goals, have various organizational values, and are composed of corrections officers and inmates. Therefore, they likely have subcultures. However, previous studies conducted in South Korea solely focused on the subcultures of inmates, and no study has evaluated the subcultures of corrections officers. The objectives of this study were to examine the existence of subcultures and identify the characteristics of corrections officers’ subcultures in South Korea.
A survey was conducted on corrections officers, and 431 questionnaires were collected. In order to classify the types of the subculture of corrections officers, cluster analysis was conducted. Specifically, this study utilized four factors: ‘acceptance of the correctional authority ideology’, ‘cynical job attitude’, ‘interaction with coworkers’ and ‘interaction with inmates.’
The results showed that there were three subculture types: “Independent-Immersion”, “Receptive-Ritualism”, and “Receptive–Immersion."
First of all, “Independent-Immersion” type valued their independent works and actively engaged in works, although their correctional belief did not agree with that of the correctional authority. It was also found that this group did not have a specific interaction with their peers or inmates. Moreover, “Receptive – Ritualism” type accepted the ideology of the correctional authorities but showed a cynical job attitude. On the other hand, this type of officers were likely to be intimate with their peers and inmates.
'Receptive-Immersion” type was about half of the respondents. The type of officers accepted the ideology of the correctional authority and showed a positive attitude toward their work. It was found that they interacted closely with fellow employees but maintained a distance from the inmates. The results implied that “Receptive-Immersion” was the most ideal subculture type among the three types in the correctional organization.
This study is meaningful in that it is the first study to empirically examine the subculture of corrections officers in South Korea. I expect that the results of this study will be used for actual policy and future studies will further evaluate the subculture types of corrections officers in South Korea based on them because higher performance is expected when an organization manages members with considering subcultures as well as the entire organizational culture.

국내 교정공무원의 하위문화 유형

** 동국대학교 미래융합디자인연구소 연구원, 제1저자.
*** 동국대학교 경찰사법대학 교수, 교신저자.


교정조직은 교정목표의 패러다임 변화, 상충된 조직의 목표, 조직원의 가치관, 교정 공무원과 재소자의 관계 등 다양한 형태의 업무와 성향 및 구성원으로 이루어졌기 때문에 하위문화가 존재할 가능성이 높다. 그러나 국내 교정조직내의 하위문화에 대한 연구는 오로지 재소자를 대상으로 한 연구만 존재할 뿐, 교정공무원을 대상으로 한 하위문화 연구는 전혀 찾아볼 수가 없다. 따라서 이 연구는 국내 교정공무원의 하위문화를 유형화하여 특성을 살펴보았다.
이 연구는 교정공무원을 대상으로 총 431부의 설문지를 조사자료로 활용하였다. 그리고 교정공무원 하위문화 유형을 분류하기 위해 군집분석(Cluster analysis)을 실시 하였다. 구체적으로 ‘교정당국 이념수용’, ‘냉소적 직무태도’, ‘동료직원과의 상호작 용’, ‘재소자와의 상호작용’ 등 4가지 요인들을 활용하였다.
분석결과, 하위문화 유형은 총 3가지의 집단으로 나타났으며, 각 집단을 ‘독자적-몰입형’, ‘수용적-의례형’, ‘수용적-몰입형’으로 명명하였다.
이 연구는 국내에서 처음으로 교정조직 내 교정공무원의 하위문화 유형화에 대한 실증적 논의를 가능케 했다는 점에서 큰 의의를 갖고 있다. 따라서 이 연구결과를 바탕으로 국내 교정공무원의 하위문화 유형에 대한 집중적인 후속 연구와 동시에 정책 적 자료로 활용됨을 기대해 본다.